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Mediterranean climate

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In this page talks about ( Mediterranean climate ) It was sent to us on 05/08/2021 and was presented on 05/08/2021 and the last update on this page on 05/08/2021

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From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia


Köppen climate classification


Under the Köppen climate classification "hot dry-summer" climates (classified as Csa) and "cool dry-summer" climates (classified as Csb) are often referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen climate system the first letter indicates the climate group (in this case temperate climates). Temperate climates or "C" zones have an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) but below 18 °C (64 °F) in their coolest months. The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern ("s" represents dry summers). Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm (1.2 in) of precipitation and as a month within the high-sun months of April to September in the case of the Northern Hemisphere and October to March in the case of the Southern Hemisphere and it also must contain exactly or less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some however use a 40 mm (1.6 in) level. The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C (72 °F) while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C (72 °F).

Under the Köppen classification dry-summer climates (Csa Csb) usually occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas normally not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates such as much of the Pacific Northwest much of southern Chile parts of west-central Argentina and parts of New Zealand. Additional highland areas in the subtropics also meet Cs requirements though they too are not normally associated with Mediterranean climates as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira the Juan Fernández Islands the western part of the Canary Islands and the eastern part of the Azores.

Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C (50 °F) or higher (subtropical) and the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm (35 in). Normally climates that have eight or more months with a mean temperature over 10 °C (50 °F) are located in the southern portions of the temperate zone (latitudes 25 to 35 north and south) and have mean temperatures around 7 °C (45 °F) in the coldest months and warmer than 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest months. In the Trewartha climate classification system the cooler summer Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do or temperate oceanic climate.

Under Holdridge life zones classification the Mediterranean climates are either temperate or subtropical climates. They are frequently found within the Warm Temperate region as defined by Leslie Holdridge with a mean annual biotemperature between 12 °C (54 °F) and the frost line or critical temperature line 16 to 18 °C (61 to 64 °F) (depending on locations in the world but often "simplified" as 17 °C (63 °F) (= 2(log212+0;5) ≈ 16.97 °C (62.55 °F)) ). Biotemperature is based on the growing season length and temperature. It is measured as the mean of all temperatures with all temperatures below freezing and above 30 °C (86 °F) adjusted to 0 °C as plants are dormant at these temperatures. The frost line separates the warm temperate region from the subtropical region. It represents the dividing line between two major physiological groups of evolved plants. On the warmer side of the line the majority of the plants are sensitive to low temperatures. They can be killed back by frosts as they have not evolved to withstand periods of cold. On the colder temperate side of the line the total flora is adapted to survive periods of variable length of low temperatures whether as seeds in the case of the annuals or as perennial plants which can withstand the cold. Only the warmest Mediterranean climates with a biotemperature between 16 °C (61 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F) and 24 °C (75 °F) are subtropical climates in Holdridge classification.


Temperature


The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have relatively mild winters and very warm summers. However winter and summer temperatures can vary greatly between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. For instance in the case of winters Los Angeles experiences mild to warm temperatures in the winter with frost and snowfall almost unknown whereas Tashkent has cold winters with annual frosts and snowfall; or to consider summer Seville experiences rather high temperatures in that season. In contrast San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around 21 °C (70 °F) due to the continuous upwelling of cold subsurface waters along the coast.

Because most regions with a Mediterranean climate are near large bodies of water temperatures are generally moderate with a comparatively small range of temperatures between the winter low and summer high (although the daily range of temperature during the summer is large due to dry and clear conditions except along the immediate coasts). Temperatures during winter only occasionally fall below the freezing point and snow is generally seldom seen. Summer temperatures can be cool to very hot depending on distance from a large body of water elevation latitude among other factors. Strong winds from inland desert regions can sometimes boost summer temperatures quickly increasing the risk of wildfires. Notable exceptions to the usual proximity from bodies of water thus featuring extremely high summer temperatures include south-eastern Turkey and northern Iraq (Urfa Erbil) surrounded by hot deserts to the south and mountains to the north. Those places routinely experience summer daily means of over 30 °C (86 °F) while receiving enough rainfall in winter not to fall into arid classifications.

As in every climatologic domain the highland locations of the Mediterranean domain can present cooler temperatures in winter than the lowland areas temperatures which can sometimes prohibit the growth of typical Mediterranean plants. Some Spanish authors opt to use the term Continental Mediterranean Climate for some regions with lower temperature in winter than the coastal areas (direct translation from Clima Mediterráneo Continentalizado) but most climate classifications (including Köppen's Cs zones) show no distinction.

Additionally the temperature and rainfall pattern for a Csa or even a Csb climate can exist as a microclimate in some high-altitude locations adjacent to a rare tropical As (tropical savanna climate with dry summers typically in a rainshadow region as in Hawaii).
These have a favourable climate with mild wet winters and fairly warm dry summers.


Cold-summer Mediterranean climate


The cold-summer subtype of the Mediterranean climate (Csc) is rare and predominately found at scattered high-altitude locations along the west coasts of North and South America. This type is characterized by cool summers with fewer than four months with a mean temperature at or above 10 °C (50 °F) as well as with mild winters with no winter month having a mean temperature below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C [27 °F]) depending on the isotherm used). Regions with this climate are influenced by the dry-summer trend that extends considerably poleward along the west coast of the Americas as well as the moderating influences of high altitude and relative proximity to the Pacific Ocean.

In North America areas with Csc climate can be found in the Olympic Cascade Klamath and Sierra Nevada ranges in Washington Oregon and California. These locations are found at high altitude nearby lower altitude regions characterized by a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb) or hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa). A rare instance of this climate occurs in the tropics on Haleakalā Summit in Hawaii.

In South America Csc regions can be found along the Andes in Chile and Argentina. The town of Balmaceda is one of the few towns confirmed to have this climate.

Small areas with a Csc climate can be found at high elevations in Corsica.[citation needed]

In Europe the Norwegian Island of Røst above the Arctic circle has a Csc climate and is known as a climatic anomaly due to abnormally warm temperatures compared to its northerly latitude.





Balmaceda Chile
Climate chart (explanation)































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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: DMC infochile


























Haleakala Summit United States
Climate chart (explanation)































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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: The Western Regional Climate Center