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Lead Poisoning...medical consulting

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In this page talks about ( Lead Poisoning...medical consulting ) It was sent to us on 05/08/2021 and was presented on 05/08/2021 and the last update on this page on 05/08/2021

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Prevention of Lead Poisoning











Commercially available kits should be used to test household paint (except in houses built after 1978) ceramics made outside the United States and water supplies for lead content. Measures that reduce the risk of household poisoning include regular cleaning such as





Hand washing




Washing of children’s toys and pacifiers




Cleaning of household surfaces




Dusting affected windowsills weekly with a damp cloth






Chipped leaded paint should be repaired. Larger renovation projects to remove leaded paint can release large quantities of lead into the house and should be done professionally. Commercially available faucet filters can remove most lead from drinking water.



Adults exposed to lead dust at work should





Use appropriate personal protective equipment




Change their clothing and shoes before going home




Shower before going to bed





Symptoms of Lead Poisoning











Many people with mild lead poisoning have no symptoms. Symptoms that do occur usually develop over several weeks or longer. Sometimes symptoms flare up periodically.



Typical symptoms of lead poisoning include personality changes headaches loss of sensation weakness a metallic taste in the mouth uncoordinated walking poor appetite vomiting constipation crampy abdominal pain bone or joint pains high blood pressure and anemia. Kidney damage often develops without symptoms.





Young children who have been exposed to lead may become cranky and their attention span and play activity may decrease over the course of several weeks. Encephalopathy can then begin suddenly and worsen over the next several days resulting in persistent forceful vomiting; poor coordination and difficulty walking; confusion; sleepiness; and finally seizures and coma. Chronic lead poisoning in children may cause intellectual disability seizure disorders aggressive behavior disorders developmental regression chronic abdominal pain and anemia.




Adults who are exposed to lead at work typically develop symptoms (such as personality changes headaches abdominal pain and damage to nerves with numbness and loss of sensation in the feet and legs) over several weeks or longer. Adults may develop loss of sex drive infertility and in men erectile dysfunction (impotence). Encephalopathy rarely develops in adults.




Children and adults may develop anemia.




Children and adults who inhale the fumes from leaded gasoline may develop symptoms of psychosis in addition to typical symptoms of lead poisoning.






Some symptoms may diminish if exposure to lead is stopped only to worsen again if exposure is resumed.


Treatment of Lead Poisoning













Stopping exposure to lead




Sometimes whole-bowel irrigation




Sometimes chelation therapy and mineral supplements






Treatment consists of stopping exposure to lead and removing accumulated lead from the body. If an abdominal x-ray shows lead chips a special solution of polyethylene glycol is given by mouth or through a stomach tube to wash the contents of the stomach and intestines (a process called whole-bowel irrigation).



Doctors remove lead from the body by giving drugs that bind with the lead (chelation therapy) allowing it to pass into the urine. All drugs that remove lead work slowly and can cause serious side effects.



Succimer is one drug used in chelation therapy. People with mild lead poisoning are given succimer by mouth. People with more serious lead poisoning are treated in the hospital with injections of chelating drugs such as dimercaprol succimer and edetate calcium disodium. Because chelating drugs also can remove beneficial minerals such as zinc copper and iron from the body the person often is given supplements of these minerals.



Even after treatment many children with encephalopathy develop some degree of permanent brain damage. Kidney damage is also sometimes permanent.


Diagnosis of Lead Poisoning













Lead levels in blood






The diagnosis of lead poisoning is based on symptoms and a blood test. Adults whose jobs involve handling lead need frequent blood tests. Children living in communities with many older houses where peeling lead-based paint is common should also undergo blood tests for lead. In children bone and abdominal x-rays often show evidence of lead poisoning.


More Information













American Association of Poison Control Centers: 1-800-222-1222




United States Environmental Protection Agency's recommended lead test kits





simple explanation



Some causes of lead poisoning are ingesting lead paint and eating or drinking from certain imported improperly lead-glazed ceramics.


Very high levels of lead in the blood may cause personality changes headaches loss of sensation weakness a metallic taste in the mouth uncoordinated walking digestive problems and anemia.


The diagnosis is based on symptoms and a blood test.


Testing household water ceramics and paint for lead can help identify potential sources of lead poisoning.


Treatment consists of stopping exposure to lead and removing accumulated lead from the body.


(See also Overview of Poisoning.)


Lead poisoning is far less common since paint containing lead pigment was banned (in 1978 in the United States) and lead was eliminated from automotive gasoline (in 1986 in the United States and by 2011 in all but 6 countries in the developing world). However lead poisoning is still a major public health problem in cities on the East Coast of the United States as well as in other isolated cities.


Lead poisoning is usually caused by direct ingestion (eating) of lead. This typically happens in


Children who live in older houses that contain peeling lead paint or lead pipes


During home remodeling people may be exposed to significant amounts of lead in particles scraped or sanded off while preparing surfaces for repainting. Young children may eat enough paint chips particularly during remodeling to develop symptoms of lead poisoning. Lead pipes used in plumbing and containment tanks may leach lead into the water supply which can be ingested at the tap.


There are various other sources of lead poisoning:


Some ceramic glazes contain lead. Ceramic ware such as pitchers cups and plates made using these glazes (common outside the United States) can leach lead particularly when in contact with acidic substances (such as fruits cola drinks tomatoes wine and cider).


Lead-contaminated moonshine whiskey and folk remedies are possible sources.


Occasionally lead foreign objects are in the stomach or tissues (such as bullets or curtain or fishing weights). Bullets lodged in certain soft tissues may increase levels of lead in the blood but that process takes years to occur.


Occupational exposure can occur during battery manufacture and recycling bronzing brass making glass making pipe cutting soldering and welding smelting or working with pottery or pigments.


Certain ethnic cosmetic products and imported herbal products and medicinal herbs contain lead and have caused cluster outbreaks of lead poisoning in immigrant communities.


Fumes of leaded gasoline (in countries where it is still available) recreationally inhaled for the intoxicating effects on the brain may cause lead poisoning.


Lead affects many parts of the body including the brain nerves kidneys liver blood digestive tract and sex organs. Children are particularly susceptible because lead causes the most damage in nervous systems that are still developing.


If the level of lead in the blood is high for days symptoms of sudden brain damage (encephalopathy) usually develop. Lower blood levels that are sustained for longer periods of time sometimes cause long-term intellectual deficits.


Children living in communities where houses are old should be tested for lead poisoning regardless of whether symptoms are present.


Many people with mild lead poisoning have no symptoms. Symptoms that do occur usually develop over several weeks or longer. Sometimes symptoms flare up periodically.


Typical symptoms of lead poisoning include personality changes headaches loss of sensation weakness a metallic taste in the mouth uncoordinated walking poor appetite vomiting constipation crampy abdominal pain bone or joint pains high blood pressure and anemia. Kidney damage often develops without symptoms.


Young children who have been exposed to lead may become cranky and their attention span and play activity may decrease over the course of several weeks. Encephalopathy can then begin suddenly and worsen over the next several days resulting in persistent forceful vomiting; poor coordination and difficulty walking; confusion; sleepiness; and finally seizures and coma. Chronic lead poisoning in children may cause intellectual disability seizure disorders aggressive behavior disorders developmental regression chronic abdominal pain and anemia.


Adults who are exposed to lead at work typically develop symptoms (such as personality changes headaches abdominal pain and damage to nerves with numbness and loss of sensation in the feet and legs) over several weeks or longer. Adults may develop loss of sex drive infertility and in men erectile dysfunction (impotence). Encephalopathy rarely develops in adults.


Children and adults may develop anemia.


Children and adults who inhale the fumes from leaded gasoline may develop symptoms of psychosis in addition to typical symptoms of lead poisoning.


Some symptoms may diminish if exposure to lead is stopped only to worsen again if exposure is resumed.


Lead levels in blood


The diagnosis of lead poisoning is based on symptoms and a blood test. Adults whose jobs involve handling lead need frequent blood tests. Children living in communities with many older houses where peeling lead-based paint is common should also undergo blood tests for lead. In children bone and abdominal x-rays often show evidence of lead poisoning.


Commercially available kits should be used to test household paint (except in houses built after 1978) ceramics made outside the United States and water supplies for lead content. Measures that reduce the risk of household poisoning include regular cleaning such as


Hand washing


Washing of children’s toys and pacifiers


Cleaning of household surfaces


Dusting affected windowsills weekly with a damp cloth


Chipped leaded paint should be repaired. Larger renovation projects to remove leaded paint can release large quantities of lead into the house and should be done professionally. Commercially available faucet filters can remove most lead from drinking water.


Adults exposed to lead dust at work should


Use appropriate personal protective equipment


Change their clothing and shoes before going home


Shower before going to bed


Stopping exposure to lead


Sometimes whole-bowel irrigation


Sometimes chelation therapy and mineral supplements


Treatment consists of stopping exposure to lead and removing accumulated lead from the body. If an abdominal x-ray shows lead chips a special solution of polyethylene glycol is given by mouth or through a stomach tube to wash the contents of the stomach and intestines (a process called whole-bowel irrigation).


Doctors remove lead from the body by giving drugs that bind with the lead (chelation therapy) allowing it to pass into the urine. All drugs that remove lead work slowly and can cause serious side effects.


Succimer is one drug used in chelation therapy. People with mild lead poisoning are given succimer by mouth. People with more serious lead poisoning are treated in the hospital with injections of chelating drugs such as dimercaprol succimer and edetate calcium disodium. Because chelating drugs also can remove beneficial minerals such as zinc copper and iron from the body the person often is given supplements of these minerals.


Even after treatment many children with encephalopathy develop some degree of permanent brain damage. Kidney damage is also sometimes permanent.


American Association of Poison Control Centers: 1-800-222-1222


United States Environmental Protection Agency's recommended lead test kits
  • The Author: wikbe
 
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